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Special Issue 2018

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Special Issue 2018
Special Issue 2018
This paper illustrates the importance of biodiversity, in particular of the arthropodofauna, as it guarantees a series of ecosystem services needed to improve the quality of life. The importance of biodiversity has been acknowledged globally since it depends on a wide range of ecological functions defined as "ecosystem services" such as the production of essential goods, the reduction of pollutants, climate regulation and the regulation of waters. In this context, among environmental improvements is inclu
Special Issue 2018
Drought phenomena are one of the greatest damaging climate events. For this reason it is necessary to detect several drought features such as its intensity, duration, recurrence probability and spatial extent, also in order to alleviate the impacts of droughts. In this study, drought, expressed using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI), has been analyzed in a region of southern Italy (Calabria) using a homogenized database for 24 monthly rainfall series in the 1951-2016 period. First, both the short-
Special Issue 2018
The work presents the evaluation of performance in wave run-up predicting of the well-known numerical model SWASH (Zijlema et alii, 2011), used to reproduce the swash zone hydrodynamics of a natural embayed beach. Field data collected at the bay of Torre Lapillo (Lecce, Italy) by means of video-analysis techniques are used for such purpose. A new automated coastal remote video-monitoring system has been recently installed in collaboration with the Apulian Basin Authority (AdBP), allowing image processing an
Special Issue 2018
Water distribution networks are complex infrastructures characterized by very large dimensions (meshed networks with thousands of nodes) and reduced accessibility (generally they are buried underground). These peculiarities make it particularly difficult to manage and show numerous criticalities; at the same time, water distribution networks represent one of the main subsystems of smart cities. The paradigm “divide et impera” is a valid technique to improve the management and facilitate the maintenanc
Special Issue 2018
This study analyzes the climate change effects on the future precipitation and temperature over the Taro, Parma and Enza River basins, in the Emilia Romagna region, northern Italy. An ensemble of 13 Regional Climate Models and two emission scenarios (RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5) were adopted. The results are reported in terms of precipitation and mean temperature anomalies between a reference period (RP, 1986-2005) and three future periods: short-term (ST) 2016-2035, medium-term (MT) 2046-2065 and long-term (LT) 20
Special Issue 2018
The hypothesis of Allievi about the uniform valve closure in the first part of an urban water distribution network in order to minimize water hammer, has proved to be unacceptable in view of the theoretical and experimental results that are shown in this paper. Further considerations are made about the unsteady flow in pump rising pipeline systems according to the most recent developments, to mitigate water hammer damages. Furthermore, it is noted that water hammer studies mainly concerned pipeline systems
Special Issue 2018
The necessary conditions are found in which in a stratum of uniform thickness under pressure, resting on salt water with horizontal interface in state of equilibrium, it is possible know the danger of rupture of this interface with intrusion of salt in the well.
Special Issue 2018
Earthquakes are generated by tectonic movements of the earth's crust; however, the fact that some of them occur in some man - related activities has suggested that their genesis may sometimes be affected by human action. On the basis of literature data, mainly from American studies, we report the cases of the 2012 earthquake crisis in Mormanno (Cosenza Province - Calabria Region) and that of 2016 in Amatrice (Central Italian Apennine), which can be considered, at least in part, as reservoir - related events
Special Issue 2018
Some “block structures” present along the faults with weak transcurrent components, crossing the Calabrian Coastal Chain from SW to NE, especially useful in the seismic field, are identified and described. Some of them are particularly interesting for possible seismic relapse towards the RoggianoGravinadam, one of the most important hydraulic works in the province of Cosenza. Associated with these structures, there are numerous Deep SeatedGravitational Slope Deformations (DSGSDs) and large ancient lands
Special Issue 2018
From a hydraulic point of view, flood propagation in natural channels or in floodplains should be simulated using the fully-dynamic shallow water equations (SWEs), although their kinematic or diffusive approximations are still commonly used in practical applications. Indeed, only the use of the fully dynamics equations, formulated in a conservative form, allows the correct treatment of localized hydraulic phenomena and regime changes, factors that are very important for risk assessment. Currents originated
Special Issue 2018
The water network pipeline materials evolution has introduced market innovations for improving static, hydraulic and cost performance. Over time, to the technical and cost-effective selection criteria of pipelines, related to the materials used, has added environmental assessments linked to the construction and management phases impact. The new scientific and regulatory references have highlighted the need to carry out environmental impact assessments, particularly on the materials and works life cycle. The
Special Issue 2018
Aquatic vegetation provides a wide range of ecosystem services. The uptake of nutrients and production of oxygen improve water quality. The widespread planting in waterways could strongly contribute to the removal of nitrogen and phosphorous. Seagrasses form the foundation of many food webs and vegetation promotes biodiversity by creating different habitats with spatial heterogeneity in the stream velocity. Marshes and mangroves reduce coastal erosion by damping waves and storm surge, as well riparian veget
Special Issue 2018
After a brief characterization of rapidly varying flows, a multi-resolution GPU-parallel numerical model implemented in CUDA/C++ for the solution of the 2D Shallow Water Equations is illustrated. Then, the activities developed with the aim of simulating two flooding events occurred in Emilia-Romagna (northern Italy) are detailed. The first event, happened on October 13th 2014 on the basin of the rivers Parma and Baganza, caused the flooding of wide districts of the town of Parma, with damages of several ten
Special Issue 2018
Modelling the transport of floating bodies during floods is a topic that must be considered when dealing with flood risk, but many open issues still exist regarding its implementation. The paper presents an enhanced one-way coupled SWE-DE (Shallow Water Equations-Discrete Element) model, focusing on to the algorithm for the rigid body localization and on the interpolation of the flow velocity distribution along the body. The proposed algorithm leads to a smoother variation of the hydrodynamic coefficients.
Special Issue 2018
This paper investigates how the choice of the effectiveness-related objective function affects the results of the optimal placement of water quality sensors in water distribution networks (WDNs). The methodology adopted is based on bi-objective optimization, with the number of installed sensors as first objective function to be minimized. As for the choice of the second objective function, representative of the effectiveness of the monitoring system to react to a set of potential contamination events, two v
Special Issue 2018
In the present study, the accuracy of the GLT model (Tomasicchio et alii, 2013) has been verified for the estimation of the Longshore Transport (LT) at shingle and mixed beaches. In order to verify the suitability of the GLT model in determining LT estimates at shingle beaches, without any further calibration, the comparison between the LT predictions and observations from two field data sets (Chadwick, 1989; Nicholls & Wright, 1991) has been considered. The comparison showed that the GLT predicted LT rates
Special Issue 2018
The occurrence of illicit drugs and related metabolites in two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) (namely, WWTP-1 and WWTP-2) located in Sicily (island in the South of Italy) is here discussed. The following illicit drugs have been investigated: methamphetamine, cocaine (COC), 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), methadone (METH), 2-ethylidene-1,5-dimethyl-3,3-diphenylpyrrolidine (EDDP), 3,4-methylenedioxy amphetamine (MDA); 3,4-methylenedioxy ethylamphetamine (MDEA), 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ9-tetrahydroca
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