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41
Italian Journal of Engineering Geology and Environment, 2 (2015)
© Sapienza Università Editrice
www.ijege.uniroma1.it
DOI: 10.4408/IJEGE.2015-02.O-04
G
ian
M
arco
LUBErTi
(*)
, a
LBErTo
PrESTininZi
(**)
& c
arLo
ESPoSiTo
(**)
(**)
I.S.P.R.A. - Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale - Via V. Brancati, 48 - 00144 Roma, Italy
(**)
Sapienza Università di Roma - Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra e Centro di Ricerca CERI - Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5 - 00185 Roma, Italy
Corresponding author: gianmarco.luberti@isprambiente.it
DEVELOPMENT OF A GEOLOGICAL MODEL USEFUL FOR THE STUDY OF
THE NATURAL HAZARDS IN URBAN ENVIRONMENTS: AN EXAMPLE FROM
THE EASTERN SECTOR OF ROME (ITALY)
(°)
EXTENDED ABSTRACT
La gestione del rischio di un’area urbana con la diffusa presenza di elementi di valenza storico-archeologica richiede, anche nel
caso di basse pericolosità geologiche, come nel caso di Roma, una conoscenza accurata del sottosuolo. Infatti, l’elevato valore esposto
dei beni storici e la loro maggiore vulnerabilità, tenuto conto della loro vetustà e delle tecniche costruttive talora inadeguate, ad ogni
evento e per qualunque intensità, rispetto a beni di recente costruzione, determinano livelli di rischio elevati anche per bassi livelli di
pericolosità. Lo studio delle pericolosità geologiche locali presuppone pertanto la preventiva ricostruzione di un modello geologico ade-
guato agli scopi, dal momento che una loro stima, ancorché eseguita con le più avanzate metodologie e i migliori strumenti disponibili,
qualora ottenuta da una base dati geologica inadatta, porterebbe a valutazioni errate. Con tali fini, si è inteso valutare se e in che misura
l’esame integrato dei dati geologici con quelli archeologici e storico-archivistici, opportunamente coadiuvato da idonee metodologie di
analisi, potesse consentire di approfondire il quadro delle conoscenze geologiche e di individuare specifiche criticità, rispetto al territo-
rio in esame. Al riguardo, occorre infatti considerare che il patrimonio storico e le emergenze archeologiche, ancorché beni di elevato
valore esposti al rischio, costituiscono una “risorsa”, se intesi come elementi che possono accrescere lo stato delle conoscenze, anche
geologiche, del territorio.
Il presente studio, basato sull’esame critico della letteratura e su un processo di analisi integrata dei dati geologici acquisiti, prin-
cipalmente derivanti dalle stratigrafie di sondaggi, visto il contesto urbano, con quelli archeologici e storico-archivistici, ha consentito
di approfondire il quadro delle conoscenze geologiche. L’esame di questi dati è stato inserito in un geodatabase e analizzato tramite
la piattaforma GIS implementata, mentre altri dati, tra cui le foto aeree storiche, sono stati analizzati con le tradizionali tecniche, ma
confrontati con i precedenti. Per quanto riguarda i risultati, l’esame e il confronto dei più completi studi monografici sulla geologia di
Roma eseguiti negli ultimi decenni hanno innanzitutto evidenziato che sia l’organizzazione stratigrafica sia le rappresentazioni carto-
grafiche sono molto diverse tra loro. Inoltre, i riscontri stratigrafici forniti dai sondaggi e dagli altri dati acquisiti in questa sede hanno
evidenziato una maggiore complessità stratigrafica anche rispetto alla più recente monografia, confermando le indicazioni fornite dalla
recente letteratura. Ciò, unitamente ai vincoli radiometrici forniti da alcuni autori nell’ultimo ventennio, ha permesso di rilevare alcune
incongruenze stratigrafiche, pur se la scala del presente studio è stata di maggior dettaglio in confronto ai rilievi eseguiti per la recente
cartografia geologica. Rispetto ad essa, per altri versi, l’analisi multitemporale dei diversi strati informativi acquisiti ha evidenziato
anche delle discrepanze in termini di distribuzione spaziale delle unità presenti. Tra i risultati di maggior rilievo, infatti, va anche men-
zionato il riconoscimento di morfologie vallive sepolte, solo in parte note in letteratura, la cui esistenza condiziona la geologia e pone
ulteriori elementi di attenzione. Infatti, dette incisioni sono in tutto o in parte celate da consistenti spessori di terreni di riporto.
Pertanto, l’utilizzo di originali metodologie di analisi e di gestione dei diversi dati ha permesso di ricostruire un modello geologico
di maggior dettaglio e che tiene inoltre conto delle notevoli modificazioni derivate, in questo settore urbano, dai diversi usi del territo-
rio occorsi in circa tremila anni di storia. I risultati ottenuti suggeriscono la necessità di una parziale revisione delle rappresentazioni
cartografiche e della stratigrafia di Roma, tenuto conto che in alcuni casi gli elementi scaturiti hanno una validità anche per altre zone
dell’area romana. Per altri versi, questo studio ha definito un approccio metodologico valido anche per altri contesti urbani storici e
fornito elementi utili per analisi con finalità applicative. Infatti, l’individuazione di aree di “maggiore attenzione”, caratterizzate dalla
presenza nel “volume significativo” del sottosuolo di spessori mediamente elevati di materiali dalle scadenti proprietà geotecniche,
quali i terreni di riporto e, in altri casi, le alluvioni, rileva la necessità di valutare attentamente questi settori in sede di stima delle peri-
colosità geologiche. Infatti, vanno considerati i possibili effetti locali, sia in condizioni statiche che dinamiche, quali possibili cedimenti
differenziali del terreno e amplificazioni sismiche locali.
(°)
Publication produced with the financial support of the Ministry of Education (MIUR). PRIN Project No. B81J12002830001. National Scientific Coordinator: Prof. A. Prestininzi.
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G.M. LUBERTI, A. PRESTININZI & C. ESPOSITO
42
Italian Journal of Engineering Geology and Environment, 2 (2015)
© Sapienza Università Editrice
www.ijege.uniroma1.it
ABSTRACT
Detailed knowledge of the subsoil setting is an extremely im-
portant issue for a correct risk reduction policy, especially when
dealing with urban areas hosting cultural heritage, which enhance
risk conditions even at low geo-hazard levels, as in the case of
Rome. In general, the reliability of risk assessments related to
geo-hazards is strictly dependent on the resolution of the refer-
ence geological model. The study presented here exemplifies an
integrated methodology aimed at refining the knowledge of the
geological setting in unique urban environments, such as the city
of Rome, where canonical approaches are limited by the scar-
city of outcrops and ad-hoc geognostic surveys may be expen-
sive and time-consuming. The methodology used in the study is
based on a critical review of available geological, stratigraphic,
archeological and historical-archival data. The integration of such
data, properly stored, managed and analysed in a GIS environ-
ment, made it possible to: i) better frame the geological setting of
a wide sector of the eastern part of Rome; and, in particular, ii)
focus on buried natural morphologies (i.e. valleys) strongly modi-
fied by progressive urbanisation that determined their filling with
huge thickness of backfills, which often represent a critical geo-
technical issue. A detailed geological model was thus developed.
The model shows slight but significant differences with respect to
already available official maps, emphasising the need for carry-
ing out in-depth analyses of already existing data from different
sources, in order to collect thematic data to be used for effective
land management policies.
K
eywords
: Rome (Italy), urban geology, human activity, geo-hazard,
borehole log, engineering-geological model
INTRODUCTION
Managing geological risks in an urban area with plenty of
historical-archeological heritage, like Rome, requires a deep un-
derstanding of the subsoil, even when geological hazards are low.
Historical buildings have a high risk-exposed value and, given
their ancient age and mode of construction (frequently, non-re-
inforced masonry), they are more vulnerable to events of a given
type and intensity than recent buildings. Hence, even if the level
of hazard is low, the level of risk is high.
A natural hazard, which may anyway recur, is defined as the
likelihood of occurrence of an event in a given area, within a
given timeframe and with a given intensity (UNDRO-UNESCO,
1978). Estimating geo-hazards, as well as other natural phenom-
ena, is crucial to assessing geo-risks. The latter may be defined as
the likelihood of occurrence of adverse effects on health, property
and society arising from exposure to a hazard of a given type and
of a given intensity, within a given timeframe and in a limited
area. More directly, risk assessment is related to the economic
value of the elements damaged by a phenomenon of a given in-
tensity in a given area. In addition to the level of hazard (Hi) of a
specific phenomenon of a given intensity (i), the factors that, in
simplified terms, come into play in calculating the relative spe-
cific risk (RS), i.e. the expected damage to a specific vulnerable
element (e), are: the vulnerability (Vi) of the exposed element
and its related economic value (€). For each category of elements
exposed to a phenomenon of a given intensity, the specific risk
(RS) is:
RS = H(i) V(i) e [€]
(1)
On 27 February 2004, the President of the Italian Council of
Ministers issued a directive that defined the concept of “deferred-
time” geo-risk management (prevention), i.e. to activities of
study, planning, design and implementation of actions to protect
human lives and property. Therefore, especially in historical ur-
ban centres, adequately assessing geo-hazards has a paramount
importance. Failure to plan and implement actions to mitigate the
effects of expected “catastrophic” events or wrong estimations
of their intensity or return in a given area increase the likelihood
of losses of human lives and the costs to be incurred to repair the
damage caused by these events and to manage “real-time” (emer-
gency response) activities (P
rESTininZi
, 2011).
Defining a geological model that is reliable and adequate to
the scale of the study is key to adequately assessing geo-hazards.
If the levels of hazard for each type of geological event are esti-
mated by resorting to the most advanced approaches, to the best
available tools, but to an “unreliable” geological model, the re-
sulting estimations are poorly significant.
The study described in this paper was focused on urban geol-
ogy issues, namely those arising from the presence of historical
and archeological heritage elements. Although these elements
have a high risk-exposed value, they represent a “resource”, not
only in economic terms, but also in the sense that careful reading
of archival documents and archeological reports can help shed
more light on a given urban area.
The case-study area is the highly urbanised sector of Rome
that extends from the Termini station towards NE as far as the
Aniene river, between via Nomentana and the railway ring (Fig.
1). This important area was selected because it lies in part in the
historical centre, within the Aurelian Walls, and in part externally
to them. Its SW portion, within the Walls, was intensely urbanised
in Roman times and particularly during the Roman empire. Its
central and NE portions, then suburban, had a more rarefied urban
fabric (gardens and farmland), but kept a strong continuity with
the city (W
iTchEr
, 2005). In Medieval times, all of the area un-
der review was practically abandoned. Subsequently, it remained
mostly rural or hosted villas and gardens, as shown by numerous
historical maps (F
rUTaZ
, 1962). In 1870, Rome was annexed to
the Kingdom of Italy and, shortly afterwards, it became the capi-
tal city. This fact gave strong impetus to building construction in
the following decades.
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DEVELOPMENT OF A GEOLOGICAL MODEL USEFUL FOR THE STUDY OF THE NATURAL HAZARDS IN URBAN ENVIRONMENTS: AN EXAMPLE
FROM THE EASTERN SECTOR OF ROME (ITALY)
43
Italian Journal of Engineering Geology and Environment, 2 (2015)
© Sapienza Università Editrice
www.ijege.uniroma1.it
Fig. 1 - Boundary of the study area (red line) over the topographic map and the satellite image from NASA, 2003 – modified (upper left box), and loca-
tion of the main cited sites: 1 – Saccopastore, 2 – Sedia del Diavolo, 3 – Batteria Nomentana, 4 – via di Pietralata, 5 – piazza Annibaliano, 6
–Sant’Agnese/Santa Costanza Complex, 7 – Villa Blanc, 8 – Villa Mirafiori, 9 – piazza Campidano, 10 – Villa Torlonia, 11 – via di Villa Massimo,
12 – piazza Bologna, 13 – Tiburtina Station, 14 – piazzale delle Province, 15 – piazza Sassari, 16 – via Zacchia, 17 – Castro Pretorio, 18 – Policli-
nico, 19 – Castro Laurenziano, 20 – via Varese/via Milazzo intersection, 21- Città Universitaria, 22 – San Lorenzo. The solid blue line highlights
the layout of the Aurelian Walls, while the dashed blue line identifies the known layout of the Servian Walls
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G.M. LUBERTI, A. PRESTININZI & C. ESPOSITO
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Italian Journal of Engineering Geology and Environment, 2 (2015)
© Sapienza Università Editrice
www.ijege.uniroma1.it
One of the targets of the study was to determine whether a
critical review of available data and a process of integrated analy-
sis of geological data, archeological data and historical archives,
supported by suitable methodologies, could improve the general
understanding of the study area and highlight specific critical is-
sues. Taking into account the urban setting under review, lacking
outcrops but rich of information, a set of geological-stratigraphic
data was extracted from available direct investigations, mostly
from borehole logs. In historical urban settings, archeologi-
cal stratigraphy and geological stratigraphy are closely related
(E
dGEWorTh
, 2014). Thus, data collected from archeological
sources and historical archives (historical maps and photos, archi-
val documents mostly obtained from municipal archives, but also
from notarial documents), contributed to creating a geological-
stratigraphic database.
GEOLOGICAL SETTING OF THE CITY OF ROME
Rome’s urban area lies in a wide hilly sector, SW of the Apen-
nines, whose reliefs are interrupted by the alluvial and deltaic
plain of the Tiber river. The central urban area is located after the
confluence of the Tiber with the Aniene river, its main tributary
(Fig. 2). Rome’s geological setting originates from repeated sedi-
mentary and volcanic depositional events, alternating with ero-
sional stages, during the Plio-Pleistocene (c
onaTo
et alii, 1980;
M
arra
& r
oSa
, 1995a; M
iLLi
, 1997; M
arra
& F
Lorindo
, 2014).
The Units mentioned below, based (unless otherwise specified)
on the nomenclature adopted by F
UniciELLo
& G
iordano
(2008a),
belong to the central urban sector (Fig. 2). For the sake of short-
ness, the Units occurring in the peripheral sectors of the munici-
pal area were excluded.
In Rome, the Apennine bedrock is tectonically downthrown
and covered by marine, circalittoral to upper bathyal, neoau-
tochthonous sediments, of Pliocene age, dominantly consisting
of clayey silts and marly clays (M
arra
& r
oSa
, 1995a). These
sediments belong to the Monte Vaticano Formation Auct., whose
thickness is more than 900 m at Circo Massimo (S
iGnorini
, 1939),
but half or less in other sites close to the city, demonstrating the
strong structuration of the bedrock due to extensional tectonic
movements (F
UniciELLo
& G
iordano
, 2008a). In the lower Pleis-
tocene, a new marine sedimentary cycle led to the deposition
of the coarser sediments of the Monte Mario Formation, which
overlie the previous sediments with a slight angular unconfor-
mity (B
onadonna
, 1968). The following Monte Ciocci Formation
(K
arnEr
et alii, 2001a) includes the Monte Ciocci Unit (M
arra
,
1993) and the Monte delle Piche Unit (c
onaTo
et alii, 1980), high-
lighting a first continentalisation of Rome’s SW sector (F
Lorindo
et alii, 2007; M
arra
& F
Lorindo
, 2014). Littoral, transitional and
continental facies in the same area testify the final retreat of the
sea. a
MBroSETTi
& B
onadonna
(1967) ascribed these facies to the
Ponte Galeria Formation. Subsequently, other authors (M
arra
et
alii, 1998a; F
Lorindo
et alii, 2007) attributed these facies to two
distinct depositional sequences, mostly made up of gravel and
sand and occurring between the end of the lower Pleistocene and
the middle Pleistocene. At the same time, an Apennine-trending
tectonic sinking took place in the NW NE portion of the current
central urban sector, comprising the study area. This tectonic de-
pression, where a dominantly fluvial and palustrine sedimenta-
tion occurred (M
arra
& r
oSa
, 1995a), is known as Paleotiber
graben. Two successions were deposited into this graben. The
successions, correlated with the Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 19
and 17, are defined as Paleotiber 2 and Paleotiber 3, respectively
(F
Lorindo
et alii, 2007; M
arra
& F
Lorindo
, 2014).
Tectonic, sedimentary, volcanic and eustatic events had a
more complex interaction with one another starting from the end
of the lower Pleistocene and throughout the middle Pleistocene
(c
avinaTo
et alii, 1992; M
arra
et alii, 1998b; K
arnEr
et alii,
2001a; M
arra
& F
Lorindo
, 2014). The effects of these events
on the Roman stratigraphy are a succession of fluvio-palustrine
and fluvio-lacustrine continental sediments, alternating with
volcanic deposits, chiefly pyroclastic fall and flow deposits and,
subordinately, lavas. This succession was reconstructed by us-
ing the paleomagnetic and geochronological constraints pro-
vided by interbedded tephra (K
arnEr
& M
arra
, 1998; K
arnEr
& r
EnnE
, 1998; M
arra
et alii, 1998a; K
arnEr
et alii, 2001a,
2001b; M
arra
& F
Lorindo
, 2014). The succession is missing
or incomplete on the right bank of the Tiber, where marine and
early continental sediments were dislocated into the structural
high of Monte Mario.
The first volcanic eruptions emplaced levels of volcanic fall
deposits onto the Paleotiber sediments (M
arra
et alii, 1998a;
F
Lorindo
et alii, 2007; M
arra
et alii, 2014b). The deposits of the
following sedimentary succession, the Santa Cecilia Formation
which was correlated with the MIS 15 (M
arra
et alii, 1998a),
are more frequent and thicker in the SW area of Rome (M
arra
&
F
Lorindo
, 2014). The first volcanic products to reach the urban
area with huge volumes are the Colli Albani Volcanic District’s
(CAVD) Tufo Pisolitico di Trigoria, and the Monti Sabatini Vol-
canic District’s (MSVD) Tufo Giallo della via Tiberina (K
arnEr
et alii, 2001b). These deposits are overlain by generally fluvial
and locally palustrine sediments, which were referred to as the
Valle Giulia Formation and correlated with the MIS 13 (M
ar
-
ra
& r
oSa
, 1995a; K
arnEr
& M
arra
, 1998); these sediments
are also exposed in the historical centre, near the Tiber. During
their long depositional interval (K
arnEr
et alii, 2001b; M
arra
et
alii, 2009; M
arra
et alii, 2014b), a second eruptive cycle of the
CAVD emplaced pyroclastic deposits, which are diffuse in the
historical centre and known as Tufo del Palatino. These deposits
were temporally followed by the MSVD’s Tufo Giallo di Prima
Porta
, Grottarossa Pyroclastic Sequence and Tufo Terroso con
Pomici Bianche
that are encountered also in the central urban
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DEVELOPMENT OF A GEOLOGICAL MODEL USEFUL FOR THE STUDY OF THE NATURAL HAZARDS IN URBAN ENVIRONMENTS: AN EXAMPLE
FROM THE EASTERN SECTOR OF ROME (ITALY)
45
Italian Journal of Engineering Geology and Environment, 2 (2015)
© Sapienza Università Editrice
www.ijege.uniroma1.it
Fig. 2 - Geologic sketch of the central urban area of Rome (red square-frame in the lower-left box). Backfills are not mapped. Legend - a: marine
sedimentary deposits (Pliocene-early Pleistocene); b: transition and continental sedimentary deposits (early Pleistocene–upper Pleistocene);
c: volcanic deposits (middle Pleistocene–upper Pleistocene); d: “Post-Wurmian” alluvial deposits (upper Pleistocene–Holocene); e: main
tectonic lineaments, inferred, buried (the Apennine-trending fault marks the SW border of the Paleotiber graben); f: boundary of the study
area; g: rivers. Main reliefs: 1 – Palatino, 2 – Campidoglio, 3 – Celio, 4 – Esquilino, 5 – Viminale, 6 – Quirinale, 7 – Aventino, 8 – Monte
Mario. Cited toponyms: A – Prati di Castello, B – Campo Marzio, C – Trastevere
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G.M. LUBERTI, A. PRESTININZI & C. ESPOSITO
46
Italian Journal of Engineering Geology and Environment, 2 (2015)
© Sapienza Università Editrice
www.ijege.uniroma1.it
area (K
arnEr
et alii, 2001b). Subsequently, huge volumes of
volcanic deposits (especially pyroclastics) reshaped Rome’s pa-
leomorphology, emplacing deposits that flattened the paleoval-
leys and, at times, inverted their relief (K
arnEr
et alii, 2001b).
The Pozzolane Rosse Auctt., emitted by the CAVD, occur on the
left side of the Tiber; they were temporally followed (K
arnEr
et
alii, 2001b; M
arra
et alii, 2014b) by deposits from the MSVD.
These deposits, mostly located in the NW sector of Rome, on the
right bank of the Tiber, are known as Tufo Rosso a Scorie Nere;
they are dominantly lithoid owing to zeolitisation (F
UniciELLo
&
G
iordano
, 2008a). A long period of continental sedimentation
(M
arra
et alii, 2014b) partially reworked the Pozzolane Rosse in
layers alternating with primary fall and flow deposits, originally
indicated as Conglomerato Giallo and corresponding to the MIS
11 San Paolo Formation (M
arra
& r
oSa
, 1995a). These depos-
its were immediately followed by pyroclastic deposits from the
CAVD, the Pozzolane Nere Auctt. (K
arnEr
et alii, 2001b). At
the same time, the MSVD began a long stage of emission of
fall products (M
arra
et alii, 2014b), corresponding to the Tufi
Stratificati Varicolori di La Storta, after which the CAVD had a
single eruptive sequence (M
arra
& r
oSa
, 1995a). This sequence
involved a first pyroclastic flow - the Tufo Lionato Auctt. - with
a prevailingly lithoid facies due to zeolitisation, and then a sec-
ond flow upwards - the Pozzolanelle Auctt. - with a generally
incoherent facies (K
arnEr
et alii, 2001b). The related deposits
are found in some central sectors, including the hills of the first
Roman settlements (Fig. 2). This massive eruptive stage was
followed by the collapse of the Tuscolano-Artemisio volcanic
edifice and by the resumption of the erosional activity. This ac-
tivity was followed by the deposition of MIS 9 fluvio-lacustrine
sediments that are known in the literature as Aurelia Formation
(c
onaTo
et alii, 1980). Limbs of this formation now occur on
Roman hills, including historical ones near the Tiber. Locally, in
particular at Batteria Nomentana, close to the Aniene river (Fig.
1), temporally subsequent sediments were identified. These sedi-
ments, called Via Mascagni Succession (M
arra
et alii, 2014a),
are covered by thin levels of Tufo Giallo di Sacrofano (K
arnEr
et alii, 2001b). Limited limbs of the subsequent Vitinia Forma-
tion
(c
onaTo
et alii, 1980), consisting of MIS 7 fluvio-lacustrine
deposits (K
arnEr
& M
arra
, 1998), are supposed to be present in
the urban area, e.g. at Saccopastore, where M
arra
et alii (2015b)
ruled out the correlation of these deposits with the MIS 5. The
Lava di Capo di Bove flow, resulting from the activity of the
CAVD, elongates from the SE peripheral sector to the margin of
the central urban area (M
arra
et alii, 2003). The Sabatini and
Albani volcanic activities ended in the upper Pleistocene (G
iac
-
cio
et alii, 2009; S
oTTiLi
et alii, 2010).
During the latest glacial stage, erosional processes triggered
by the lowering of the base level completed their effects. They
incised the present hydrographic network and, from the end of the
upper Pleistocene through the Holocene, they deposited generally
alluvial sediments, whose thickness is 60-70 m in the Tiber val-
ley (B
oZZano
et alii, 2000; M
ancini
et alii, 2013; M
arra
et alii,
2013). Finally, in the last 2,500 years, numerous human activities
contributed to remodelling the urbanscape, especially by exca-
vating slopes and filling valley depressions with backfills (d
EL
M
onTE
et alii, in press).
THE GEO-HAZARDS OF THE CITY OF ROME
Rome is exposed to all geo-hazards, including coastal ones
(erosion, marine ingression, tsunamis), the latter only pertaining
to the area of Ostia and of the Tiber delta (Fig. 2). The urban
centre is subject to natural events with a low frequency but, at
times, a high intensity of occurrence. Nevertheless, the high risk-
exposed value of ancient heritage elements and their higher vul-
nerability than recently built ones entail high levels of risk. In
addition to hazard factors that may recur, there are danger factors
that may cause an event in a specific site, through processes that
may span a long timeframe.
Among the latter factors, numerous authors (including
c
rEScEnZi
et alii, 1995; L
anZini
, 1995; B
ianchi
F
aSani
et alii,
2011) mentioned the danger of collapse of the covers overlying
the roofs of underground quarries, especially in Rome, which has
a dense network of hypogeal man-made cavities mainly due to
extracting activities and favoured by its geological setting (v
En
-
TriGLia
, 1971; a
ManTi
et alii, 1995b; v
EnTriGLia
, 2002).
The danger of subsidence in Rome’s urban area generally de-
pends on overloads, e.g. stresses induced by the construction of
buildings on highly compressible alluvial terrains (P
rESTininZi
et
alii, 1990) or by water abstraction. The occurrence of peat levels
enhances this phenomenon (c
aMPoLUnGhi
et alii, 2008; S
TraMon
-
do
et alii, 2008; Z
Eni
et alii, 2011; c
aSErTa
et alii, 2012; S
Barra
et alii, 2012). Satellite interferometry data from the Portale Carto-
grafico Nazionale (MATTM, 2009) show the general stability of
the ground in the study area.
As to landslide hazard, numerous falls/topples, slides and
flows were inventoried in Rome, although complex phenom-
ena and areas prone to diffuse shallow landsliding are dominant
(a
ManTi
et alii, 2008; ISPRA, 2014). Recent events (at the begin-
ning of 2014), which affected above all the slopes on the right
bank of the Tiber, showed some anomalies with respect to his-
torical records, in terms of spatial distribution and statistical data
of the lithotypes involved. These anomalies were correlated with
the exceptional rainfall event that occurred at the time and with
the fact that areas of instability have more differences in height
and accommodate non-volcanic clastic deposits (a
LESSi
et alii,
2014). The intensity (albeit variable) of the individual phenom-
ena, during the above event and historically, was generally low in
terms of velocity and volume of mobilised materials. On the left
bank of the Tiber, gravitational phenomena are less frequent ow-
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ing to lithological conditions, lower energy relief and also more
intense urbanisation (d
EL
M
onTE
et alii, in press). In the study
area, no landslide events were inventoried, except one case of risk
of erosion-induced collapse of the Aniene river banks, near via di
Pietralata (Fig. 1), in 1959 (ISPRA, 2014).
Hydraulic hazard is related, above all, to the Tiber and Aniene
rivers. In occasion of high hydrometric levels, repeated floods oc-
curred in large sectors of their alluvial plains and, in the centre of
Rome, at Campo Marzio, Prati di Castello and Trastevere (Fig.
2). Numerous historical sources starting from the 5
th
century B.C.
testify frequent floods. The latest flood of the city leads back to
29 December 1870. After this event, massive embankments (mu-
raglioni
) were built in the urban section of the Tiber to prevent
flooding of the historical centre. Since 1953, flood control struc-
tures have been built along the Tiber, e.g. the Corbara hydropow-
er dam, 90 km N of Rome, and the Castel Giubileo breakwater.
These structures further decreased the likelihood of flooding. In
the study area, flooding of the railway ring (Fig. 1) close to the
confluence of the Fosso della Marranella with the Aniene river
is possible but with a low level of hazard (Autorità di bacino del
fiume Tevere, 2013).
Various studies (including K
arnEr
et alii, 2001b; M
arra
et
alii, 2004; G
iordano
, 2008) defined volcanic hazard in Rome as
non-negligible. A study by d
E
B
EnEdETTi
et alii (2008) assumed
that lahar phenomena had recently occurred, based on the assess-
ment of prehistorical and historical events. Subsequent studies
(G
iaccio
et alii, 2009) indicated a minimum age of about 37 ka
for the distal portions of these deposits. In spite of this, further
volcanic hazard studies on the Alban district are deemed neces-
sary (M
arra
et alii, 2004).
Seismic hazard in Rome is not negligible, since numerous
classical and historical sources report felt intensities often above
the damage threshold. The maximum felt intensity recorded in
Rome is VII-VIII MCS. Most of the damage from historical
earthquakes was concentrated in alluvial areas (M
oLin
et alii,
1995; T
ErTULLiani
& r
iGUZZi
, 1995; G
UidoBoni
et alii, 2007). The
availability of a large number of data for the seismic sequences of
Umbria-Marche in 1997 and 1998 (d
onaTi
et alii, 2008) and of
L’Aquila in 2009 (B
oZZano
et alii, 2011) confirmed that the areas
with the highest felt intensities were those resting on alluvial de-
posits, but also areas with volcanic deposits had a high concentra-
tion of damage. In the latter areas, seismic amplification - albeit
lower than in alluvial deposits - was evident and particularly in-
tense (just as for alluvial plains), with frequencies of around 1 Hz
(c
aSErTa
et alii, 2013). With regard to the L’Aquila earthquake
of 2009, the analysis of the macroseismic intensity residual, cal-
culated on the main shock and on the four aftershocks, pointed to
the occurrence of an area of particular amplification within the
Paleotiber graben (S
Barra
et alii, 2012), which encloses part of
the study area (Fig. 2).
MATERIALS AND METHODS
A geodatabase was developed in a Geographic Information
System (GIS) environment to catalogue, manage, analyse and
process the data. Data with no explicit or clear geographic content
or references were catalogued and archived, where practicable,
in digital form outside the GIS platform. These data, which were
analysed in a different manner, gave an indirect contribution to
the implementation of the geodatabase. Aerial photos were ana-
lysed with conventional photointerpretation methods and com-
pared with the data stored in the geodatabase. Then, the results of
the analyses were fed to the data layers being processed.
Borehole logs were obtained in part from the literature (main-
ly from v
EnTriGLia
1971, 2002), and in part from unpublished re-
ports made available by public and private entities and, to a lesser
extent, by professionals. As regards the geological literature, the
most detailed and most recent maps were selected. Smaller-scale
(up to 1:100,000) and historical maps were also considered. Table
1 displays the maps that proved to be most useful for the inte-
grated process of analysis described below. Geological surveys of
the locally rare and limited outcrops gave a further contribution
to defining the geological-stratigraphic setting of the study area.
For archeological data, reference was made above all to the
Forma Urbis Romae by L
anciani
(1893-1901), an archeologi-
cal map which overlays data about different historical periods,
that still today represents an absolutely necessary tool to study
Rome’s historical centre, and to the archeological map of Rome
(Carta Archeologica di Roma) (M
in
.BB.cc.aa, 1977).
With regard to historical maps, a fundamental guide for the
city of Rome is the collection of maps of F
rUTaZ
(1962). From
these maps, the Pianta grande of n
oLLi
(1748), limited to Rome’s
historical centre, was selected for the geodatabase. For subur-
ban areas, use was made of the following maps: the Carta del
Censo
(P
rESidEnZa
dEL
c
EnSo
, 1839), a topographic map based
on census data; the topographic map of M
oLTKE
(1852); the first
edition of Tavolette (IGM, 1873), i.e. the first topographic maps
with elevation data; and the Piano Topografico di Roma e Subur-
bio
, a topographic map of Rome and its suburbs surveyed for the
Rome’s Urban Master Plan (S
anjUST
di
T
EULada
, 1908) and later
updated (IGM, 1924). As regards historical aerial photos, the first
document to be used was the photomosaic by n
iSTri
(1919), al-
though consisting of non-overlapping photo frames and thus not
usable for stereoscopic viewing. The SARA-Nistri (1934) and
the MAPRW (1943-1944) flights, specifically performed for ste-
reoscopic view, were the fundamental references for the study of
the area under review, at a time when its urban development had
not yet been completed (Fig. 3). Results from analogical analysis
were compared with other data present in the geodatabase and
then fed to the data layers being processed on the GIS platform.
Historical photos, iconographic documents and, in some in-
stances, archival documents - often lacking references for tracing
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Italian Journal of Engineering Geology and Environment, 2 (2015)
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Tab. 1 - List of the main geological, geothematic and design maps added to the geodatabase and analysed in the GIS environment (full references in:
L
uberti
, 2015)
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Italian Journal of Engineering Geology and Environment, 2 (2015)
© Sapienza Università Editrice
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Fig. 3 - Top: present-day satellite image (source: Google Earth, 2013) of a portion of the study area (grey-highlighted rectangle within the red-line bordered
study area). Bottom: the corresponding sector in 1934, before final urbanisation, aerial photo (SARA-Nistri, 1934, frame 150_103_39_124973_0.
Source: Istituto Centrale per il Catalogo e la Documentazione, Aerofototeca Nazionale. Further reproduction is prohibited)
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50
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them geographically - were compared with other data and docu-
ments with a geographic location known with certainty, in order to
utilise their data. Geological surveys covered all accessible areas
were performed, taking into account the difficulties arising from an
intensely built urban environment and from the presence of numer-
ous inaccessible private areas. In other cases, e.g. at Verano, monu-
ment protection rules did not permit test excavations or sampling.
ANALYSES AND RESULTS
The GIS platform facilitated the comparison and examination
of different data, aiming at the definition of the local stratigraphic
succession, of stratigraphic relationships and of the spatial dis-
tribution of the geological units. In this connection, it is worth
noting that, both stratigraphic organisation and maps, as defined
in the latest monographic studies on Rome (v
EnTriGLia
, 1971;
M
arra
& r
oSa
, 1995a, 1995b; v
EnTriGLia
, 2002; F
UniciELLo
&
G
iordano
, 2008a, 2008b) are very different between them and
this is due not only to the names of the units and to the group-
ings adopted by the various authors (Tab. 2). For instance, in the
geological maps of v
EnTriGLia
(1971, 2002), the Complesso delle
Pozzolane inferiori, including both the Pozzolane Rosse and the
Pozzolane Nere of M
arra
& r
oSa
(1995a) and F
UniciELLo
&
Tab. 2 -
Match between the stratigraphic units of Rome, as defined in the main recent geological monographs (V
entrigLia
, 1971; M
arra
&
r
osa
, 1995a; V
entrigLia
, 2002; F
unicieLLo
& g
iordano
, 2008a) and related maps. The stratigraphic order is given according to the
last contribution. In bold, the unit initials adopted in each map. The stratigraphic succession is limited to the units that are present,
according to each map, within the railway ring. The table reports the names of the units and their concise description. Units high-
lighted in yellow are those that are present within this study area, according to the maps and sections of the respective authors
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© Sapienza Università Editrice
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Roman pyroclastic units (K
arnEr
et alii, 2001b).
Borehole logs were incorporated into the geodatabase with
the following data: source, original number of the borehole and
year of boring, elevation of the borehole head and bottom above
sea level (a.s.l.), water table elevation, depth of the roof and bed
of each unit from ground level, or level reached by the borehole
bottom, and possibly intercepted cavities (excerpt in Fig. 4). To
interpret each of the logs, reference was initially made to the
stratigraphic organisation defined by F
UniciELLo
& G
iordano
(2008a) and to the enclosed map to a scale of 1:10,000 (F
Unici
-
ELLo
& G
iordano
, 2008b). These data were compared with those
of previous geological and geothematic maps, including the ones
listed in Table 1. Some difficulties of interpretation emerged from
a first examination of the stratigraphies. These difficulties con-
cerned, on one hand, the succession and its stratigraphic relation-
ships and, on the other hand, the spatial distribution of the units
in the related map, as defined by F
UniciELLo
& G
iordano
(2008a,
2008b). Further studies on the previous and subsequent literature
(including M
arra
& r
oSa
, 1995a; K
arnEr
et alii, 2001b; F
Lorin
-
do
et alii, 2007; M
arra
et alii, 2009; M
arra
& F
Lorindo
, 2014;
M
arra
et alii, 2014b; M
arra
et alii, 2015a, 2015b) revealed a
number of inconsistencies of that stratigraphic succession, pro-
viding however, at the same time, more rational explanations to
understand and interpret the borehole logs. The need thus arose
for revising the local stratigraphic succession and relationships
and for updating the borehole database accordingly. Together
with the definition of the local stratigraphy, a methodology was
developed to pinpoint topographic and stratigraphic constraints:
the former provided by current and previous topography, and the
latter given by outcrops and stratigraphic data interpreted with
certainty from boreholes with a position known with certainty.
These constraints may be used to more accurately determine the
plano-altimetric location of boreholes for which the source pro-
vides poorly accurate data or to verify stratigraphies when they
are too concise or lack elements for an adequate interpretation.
For instance, if a borehole indicates 2 m of filling materials and,
in the map provided by the source, it lies at a point whose cur-
rent elevation is 8 m higher than shown in historical maps, then
the position of the borehole must be incorrect. This position may
be redetermined by relying on stratigraphic data known with
certainty from the same borehole or boreholes placed at reason-
able distance from it. In other cases, a borehole whose position
is certain but whose stratigraphy is inaccurate may be correctly
interpreted if, at short distance, there is a borehole with a detailed
stratigraphy or an outcrop or a section, described in an excavation
report or retrieved from the historical literature, referring to peri-
ods prior to the urbanisation of the investigated sector.
Archeological data proved to be very useful, especially to ac-
curately determine the thickness of backfills and to single out ma-
jor anthropogenic changes, at the study scale, affecting the local
G
iordano
(2008a), is assumed to outcrop extensively (disregard-
ing backfills) at Macao, Castro Pretorio and Policlinico, close to
the Aurelian Walls (Fig. 1). However, M
arra
& r
oSa
(1995b)
suppose that these pozzolanas do not outcrop in this sector, while
F
UniciELLo
& G
iordano
(2008b) mention the occurrence of Poz-
zolane Rosse only within very narrow belts. The Pozzolane Nere
are completely missing throughout the historical centre accord-
ing to M
arra
& r
oSa
(1995b), within the boundaries indicated
in their maps, and also according to F
UniciELLo
& G
iordano
(2008b), within the same boundaries. Discrepancies arise in con-
nection with many other units of the Roman stratigraphic succes-
sion in the investigated sector (L
UBErTi
, 2015). This infers that
the study of urban geology may be extremely challenging, when
outcrops are scarce and reference is to be made to borehole data,
whose different interpretation may lead to very different results.
The examination of borehole logs is problematic (a
ManTi
et alii, 1995a), first of all because of the uncertainties revolving
around their plano-altimetric location (L
UBErTi
, 2015). Further-
more, the lack of temporal data does not permit to refer the logs to
the topography of the time, with consequent uncertainties about
the actual planimetric position of the borehole and the elevation
of its head. The uncertainty is even more significant when the area
under review has undergone major changes. For instance, urban
expansion in the 140 years following the unification of Italy sig-
nificantly changed the topography of the study area (Fig. 4). So,
this problem concerned above all the borehole data retrieved from
the publications of v
EnTriGLia
(1971, 2002). Here, in many cases,
differences of many metres were observed between the elevation
of the head of the borehole, specified in the text, and the eleva-
tion of the corresponding point, in the topographic base used in
this study. Moreover, the planimetric position of some boreholes
proved to be not very accurate (errors of up to tens of meters),
which heightened the uncertainty. As to borehole logs obtained
from institutions and professionals, uncertainties frequently arose
from failure to indicate the elevation of the head of the borehole
in the log, lack of geographic coordinates and use of design-
layout detailed scale maps (1:1,000 or above) for the location of
boreholes, without accurate topographic references identifiable in
the base map of the GIS platform.
The interpretation of borehole logs was also made problem-
atic by the stratigraphic data accompanying them, which are very
often of a lithological rather than geological nature, in accordance
with clients’ requirements. Textural data were often insufficient
and, for sedimentary and pyroclastic units, sedimentological
data (grading, sphericity, rounding and size range of clasts) were
completely missing. The specification of the minerals identified
in the stratigraphies may usually help ascribe lithotypes to spe-
cific geological formations. However, in the case under review,
the frequent identification of leucite, at times altered to analcime,
did not help, because this mineralogical species occurs in many
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Italian Journal of Engineering Geology and Environment, 2 (2015)
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shallow stratigraphy. This is the case of the military moat outside
the agger of the Servian Walls, built during the Roman Republic
and occurring at Termini and Macao (Fig. 1). Moreover, historical
and archival documents, often with no references for an accurate
geographic contextualisation, were compared with other data and
documents, thus improving the understanding of the study area.
This is the case of a pozzolana quarry, which was used between
1759 and 1788, based on notarial documents. The quarry was lo-
cated near Villa Rondanini, in the Termini area, at the boundaries
with the De Vecchis and Quarantotti estates. As these estates are
reported in the map of n
oLLi
(1748), the location of the quarry
was determined near the intersection between via Varese and via
Milazzo (Fig. 1).
In some cases, the examination of historical topographic
maps (in particular: IGM, 1924) and the stereoscopic analysis of
historical aerial surveys (SARA-Nistri, 1934; MAPRW, 1943-44)
made it possible to: i) extrapolate the boundaries between the
units, based on the identified landforms and on the stratigraphic
constraints provided by boreholes; and ii) build a geological mod-
el consistent with the topography prior to recent morphological
urban-planning changes.
Thanks to the analyses carried out with the described multi-
disciplinary and multi-temporal approach, a detailed geological
model was built. The model is shown in the geological map (scale
1:10,000) and in the two cross-sections of Plate I, of which the
Fig. 4 - A portion of the study area
(corresponding to the one of
Fig. 3) in the GIS environ-
ment, showing the present-
day topographic map on the
historical topographic map
IGM (1924), the location of
boreholes (red points) and
their Id number. In the lower
sector of the figure, part of
the borehole table, consist-
ing of 288 selected logs.
Up, one of the logs linked
to the table (full table and
borehole location map in:
L
uberti
, 2015)
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pyroclastites or, in some cases, “Post-Wurmian” alluvial deposits
are directly in contact with the Paleotiber 2, suggesting that the
sediments of the Paleotiber 3 must have been eroded during the
glacial stages of the Pleistocene. At piazza Campidano (Fig. 1),
at the head of Fosso di via Salento (Fig. 5), the thickness of the
deposits correlated to the Paleotiber 3 reaches an exceptional
value of nearly 30 m. Moreover, the lower part of the succession
contains a 1 m-thick level of yellowish grey cineritic pyroclastic
material with small pumices, altered in their top part. Even the
most recent literature (M
arra
& F
Lorindo
, 2014) does not report
this volcanic level interbedded into the Paleotiber 3 deposits.
The Paleotiber 4 deposits sensu F
Lorindo
et alii (2007) - cor-
related with the MIS 15 and corresponding to the Santa Cecilia
Formation of F
UniciELLo
& G
iordano
(2008a) - are very discon-
tinuous in the study area (see sections in Plate I) and with a very
variable thickness (generally of a few metres and exceptionally
exceeding 10 m). Their geometries seemingly indicate that they
were thicker in the paleovalleys and that they were finally buried
by the pyroclastites, as in the case of via Nomentana, in the sec-
tion between Villa Mirafiori and the Sant’Agnese/Santa Costanza
Complex (Fig. 1).
The most ancient volcanic deposits reaching the study area
with substantial volumes are the Tufo Pisolitico di Trigoria and
the Tufo del Palatino (K
arnEr
et alii, 2001b), corresponding to
the Unità di Tor de’ Cenci and Unità del Palatino respectively
(F
UniciELLo
& G
iordano
, 2008a). These deposits are exposed in
the Verano area, near piazzale delle Province and on the man-
made slope underlying via Zacchia (Fig. 1 and Plate I).
The Valle Giulia Formation was deposited in a long time in-
terval including the MIS 13 (M
arra
et alii, 2014b). Deposits cor-
related with this formation were identified in boreholes in the area
of Castro Laurenziano as far as Villa Torlonia (Fig. 1), mostly
between the Tufo Pisolitico di Trigoria and Tufo del Palatino, but
also above the latter (Plate I). Deposits of the Lower Valle Giulia
Formation
were reported at via di Villa Massimo (Fig. 1) by F
Lo
-
rindo
et alii (2007) and M
arra
& F
Lorindo
(2014). In this area,
they reach an exceptional thickness of over 20 m, suggesting that
they filled a paleoriver bed. Their depositional facies is indicative
of slope debris with moderate transport in water (Marra F., pers.
comm., 2014); therefore, their facies is very different from the
palustrine one that is typical of the unit. Deposits of the Upper
Valle Giulia Formation
with a fluvial, palustrine and lacustrine
facies were found above Tufo del Palatino and beneath the units
that are associated here with the Tufi Stratificati Varicolori di Sa-
crofano complex
(see later on), NE of Villa Torlonia and at Villa
Blanc (Fig. 1 and Plate I). In this latter site, geognostic inves-
tigations recently conducted in the area acquired by the LUISS
university (Lanzini M., pers. comm., July 2015) revealed deposits
belonging to the above unit at the SE margin of the above prop-
erty, beneath 2-7 m of backfills. Indeed, these sediments lie under
main elements are described below.
In accordance with the literature (M
arra
& r
oSa
, 1995a), the
roof of the Marne Vaticane Formation is extremely structured.
This roof is found at elevations close to sea level (Section D-E-F
in Plate I) in the districts of Macao, Castro Pretorio, Policlinico
and farther S, not beyond San Lorenzo (Fig. 1). However, NE of
a line passing through Villa Torlonia and piazzale delle Province
(Fig. 1), the roof of the formation occurs at progressively lower
elevations. This fact suggests that, in agreement with F
Lorindo
et alii (2007) and M
arra
& F
Lorindo
(2014), the fault bordering
the Paleotiber graben (Fig. 2) lies in that position and therefore
the graben extends towards the NE sector of the study area (Plate
I). Nonetheless, it is worth pointing out that, in two boreholes
located between Policlinico and Castro Laurenziano (Fig. 1), SW
of the above fault, the roof of the Marne Vaticane Formation
was identified at -25 m and -42 m a.s.l., respectively. Hence, the
structural setting may be, at least locally, more complex, with a
small graben bounded by two anti-Apennine-trending faults, cor-
responding to the eastern portion of Fosso della Città Universita-
ria
(Plate I and Fig. 5). Based on borehole logs alone, other faults
active at least until the middle Pleistocene were hypothesised
(Plate I).
The marine deposits are overlain by the continental sediments
of the Paleotiber. In place of the Fosso della Crescenza Forma-
tion
(F
UniciELLo
& G
iordano
, 2008a, 2008b), it was necessary to
distinguish two units, correlated with the MIS 19 and the MIS 17
and defined Paleotiber 2 and Paleotiber 3, respectively (F
Lorin
-
do
et alii, 2007). This distinction was facilitated by the fact that
the related sediments are easily identifiable in borehole logs. In
effect, the deposits of the Paleotiber 2 dominantly consist of cal-
careous gravel with a poor silty-clayey matrix; they host the main
aquifer and are followed by grey-blue clays upwards. Conversely,
the deposits of the Paleotiber 3 are made up of yellow and ha-
vana-brown variegated silts and weakly clayey sands interbedded
with travertine lenses and levels. The roof of the Paleotiber 2
deposits usually lies at an elevation of 20 to 10 m a.s.l. along via
Nomentana as far as the Aniene river (Plate I) and at lower eleva-
tions (even below sea level) in Fosso della Marranella and in the
middle portion of Fosso di Sant’Agnese, at piazza Annibaliano
(Section A-B-C in Plate I). This infers that the significant diver-
sification of the Paleotiber 2 roof elevation is only in part due to
erosional processes, as it can also be ascribed to tectonic disloca-
tions; these dislocations must have been active at least after the
time interval of deposition of this unit and of the Paleotiber 3
and perhaps, during the deposition of the first volcanic deposits,
until the emplacement of Tufo del Palatino. The deposits of the
Paleotiber 3 are completely missing between Sedia del Diavolo
and Batteria Nomentana, in some sections of Fosso della Mar-
ranella and from the Tiburtina Station towards the valley depres-
sion and piazzale delle Province (Fig. 1). Boreholes indicated that
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Italian Journal of Engineering Geology and Environment, 2 (2015)
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Fig. 5 -
Reconstruction of the watershed drainage lines of ancient stream valleys (each called “Fosso” in accordance with the local
terminology), before their partial or total burial, due to anthropogenic processes mainly connected with the recent urbanisation
process. The study area is bordered in red. Names are given according to present-day toponyms. The green dashed-line marks the
divide between Aniene and Tiber river hydrographic basins, NE and SW, respectively
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same elevation as the homonymous site located about 1 km NW
of it. Conversely, the fluvial deposits of Saccopastore (Fig. 1),
near the Aniene river, which F
UniciELLo
& G
iordano
(2008a) at-
tributed to the Saccopastore Unit, do not correlate with the MIS 5
“Tyrrhenian” deposits, but with those of the MIS 7. Hence, they
belong to the Vitinia Formation, as demonstrated by M
arra
et
alii (2015b). Small limbs of Tufo Giallo di Sacrofano (K
arnEr
et alii, 2001b), corresponding to the Unità della Via Nomenta-
na
of F
UniciELLo
& G
iordano
(2008a), occur between Batteria
Nomentana and Sedia del Diavolo (Fig. 1 and Plate I). Based on
the radiometric ages provided by K
arnEr
et alii (2001b) and on
the stratigraphic relationships recently redetermined by M
arra
et
alii (2014a; 2015b), the Tufo Giallo di Sacrofano is to be strati-
graphically positioned above the Aurelia Formation and the Via
Mascagni Succession
, but below the Vitinia Formation (Plate I).
The “Post-Wurmian” alluvial deposits reach a considerable
thickness, of at least 6-7 m in minor stream valleys, such as Fosso
di San Lorenzo (Section D-E-F in Plate I and Fig. 5). In Fosso di
Sant’Agnese, at piazza Annibaliano (Fig. 1), the maximum thick-
ness of the alluvial deposits intercepted by the boreholes is 16
m. In Fosso della Marranella, near the Tiburtina Station (Fig. 1),
the intercepted thickness exceeds 20 m (Section A-B-C in Plate
I) and, farther downslope, 30 m, corroborating the assumptions
made by M
arra
& r
oSa
(1995c).
As exhaustively explained by L
UBErTi
(2015), the top portion
of the “Post-Wurmian” alluvial deposits was placed in heteropy
with the Ancient Backfill materials, distinguishing the latter from
the Modern Backfill materials, whose age was conventionally as-
sumed to start about 140 years ago. The backfills are not repre-
sented in the geological map, otherwise they would practically
cover most of the study area, as indicated by L
UBErTi
(2015) in the
“Carta delle Unità affioranti”. The considerable lateral changes
of the backfills can instead be recognised in the geological sec-
tions (Plate I), where the modern portion can be distinguished
from the ancient one. The latter distinction is not reported in the
table of boreholes, since the two units cannot be distinguished
in the related stratigraphies. Plate I shows a sketch of the local
stratigraphic relationships of the above-described units.
The multi-temporal analysis of historical topographic maps
and aerial photos, as well as the topographic constraints pro-
vided by borehole logs, also suggested a topographic setting that
was significantly changed by anthropogenic processes. These
processes, which took place in about three millennia, were par-
ticularly intense in the study area in the past 140 years. These
changes inevitably affect the local shallow geology. In particu-
lar, in-depth investigations disclosed the occurrence of valleys,
whose morphological records were totally or partially obliterated
by urbanisation processes. These processes caused their partial
or total filling with variably thick and, in places, very thick back-
fill materials. The historical memory of most of these valleys
the fall pyroclastites ascribed to the Tufi Stratificati Varicolori di
Sacrofano complex,
as they underlie the Pozzolane Rosse.
In some sites between Termini, piazza Sassari and piazza Bo-
logna (Fig. 1), some particularly accurate borehole logs made it
possible to discriminate the Tufo Giallo di Prima Porta and the
pyroclastites of the Grottarossa Pyroclastic Sequence from the
Tufo Terroso con Pomici Bianche (K
arnEr
et alii, 2001b), based
on their stratigraphic relationships with other units. The latter two
units correspond to the Tufi Stratificati Varicolori di Sacrofano of
Funiciello & Giordano (2008a). However, as the three units were
generally undistinguishable in borehole logs, they were merged
with the informal unit introduced here, the Tufi Stratificati Vari-
colori di Sacrofano complex
; this unit extensively occurs in the
study area except in the sector from Batteria Nomentana to the
Aniene river (Fig. 1).
The Pozzolane Nere were identified to occur at least in the
Termini area and probably as far as Villa Torlonia and piazza
Bologna (Fig. 1), based on the examination of the historical lit-
erature (d
E
a
nGELiS
d’o
SSaT
, 1948) and in agreement with the
recent interpretation proposed by M
arra
et alii (2015a). In this
case, too, the units are thin and not easily distinguishable, in many
other stratigraphies, from the Pozzolane Rosse. Consequently,
they were mapped together with the portion of the Sabatini fall
pyroclastites that they embed (see later) as an informal unit, here
called Pozzolane inferiori complex.
Fall pyroclastites whose facies and stratigraphic position
correspond to the Tufi Stratificati Varicolori di La Storta can be
found above and below the Pozzolane Nere. This is suggested
by the radiometric ages of the Sabatini fall pyroclastites, indicat-
ing a long time interval of emission. The upper portion of these
pyroclastites, recently referred to the Successione di San Abbon-
dio
(M
arra
et alii, 2014b), overlaps the Pozzolane Nere. In this
study, an informal unit (Upper Tufi Stratificati Varicolori di La
Storta
) was introduced to accommodate these fall pyroclastites
overlying the Pozzolane inferiori complex. Moderately thick lev-
els of this informal unit are diffuse in the central-southern sector
of the study area (Plate I). In the same sector, above this unit,
are thin limbs of Tufo Lionato and Pozzolanelle. Tufo Lionato
extensively occurs farther N towards the Aniene river (Plate I and
Section A-B-C). Here, Tufo Lionato has a thickness of 10-20 m in
sites where historical maps (IGM, 1924) show open-pit tuff quar-
ries, e.g. at Sedia del Diavolo (Fig. 1) where it is still exposed.
Recent geognostic surveys in the Villa Blanc area (Fig. 1)
revealed the absence of Tufo Lionato and the presence of outcrops
of the Aurelia Formation (disregarding 1-3 m-thick backfills).
Recent studies conducted by M
arra
et alii (2015b) suggested
that the deposits attributed to the Vitinia Formation by F
UniciELLo
& G
iordano
(2008b) along via Nomentana, between Villa Blanc
and Batteria Nomentana (Fig. 1), are to be correlated to the Via
Mascagni Succession
(Plate I). This succession outcrops at the
background image
G.M. LUBERTI, A. PRESTININZI & C. ESPOSITO
56
Italian Journal of Engineering Geology and Environment, 2 (2015)
© Sapienza Università Editrice
www.ijege.uniroma1.it
and distinct from those of modern deposits), the ancient backfills
in the study area are extremely heterogeneous in terms of grain
size and weathering of their volcanic groundmass, and generally
poorly cemented (L
UBErTi
, 2015). Archeological remnants are
frequent: mostly parts of buildings and paving stones, consist-
ing of lapideous materials and bricks (L
anciani
, 1893-1901; Min.
BB.CC.AA., 1977). Modern backfills are mainly volcanic origin
soils re-worked by human activities, heterogeneous in terms of
grain size and weathered, and usually poorly cemented. The oc-
currence of bricks, metals, wood and putrescible materials is pos-
sible. Archeological remains are usually absent (L
UBErTi
, 2015).
The geometries of backfills appear, to a first approximation, to
have very significant lateral thickness variations (Sections in
Plate I). The stream valley alluvial deposits are mostly made up of
silty-clayey levels alternating with sandy levels and vegetable re-
mains, with subordinate minute gravel of volcanic origin at their
bottom, as noted in the study area.
Based on literature data for the area of Rome (B
oZZano
et
alii, 2000; v
EnTriGLia
, 2002; c
aMPoLUnGhi
et alii, 2008; r
aSPa
et
alii, 2008), backfills but also recent alluvial sediments have very
different mechanical properties, generally poor, which may only
be characterised through ad-hoc case-by-case investigations. The
highest seismic amplifications (B
ard
& r
iEPL
-T
hoMaS
, 2000) are
likely to occur in areas with thick levels of poorly cemented soil,
given their very low Vs values; in Rome, in backfills and recent
sandy and silty-clayey alluvial soils, these values are generally
in the range of 150 to 300 m/s (r
ovELLi
et alii, 1995; B
oZZano
et
alii, 2008; c
aSErTa
et alii, 2012). Considering possible seismo-
genic sources and expected magnitudes, the possible scenarios for
Rome indicated that the highest seismic amplifications are likely
to occur in particular in the Tevere plain (o
LSEn
et alii, 2006),
at a frequency of about 1 Hz (B
oZZano
et alii, 2008). This fre-
quency is corroborated by the records of the L’Aquila earthquake
in 2009 (c
aSErTa
et alii, 2013). During this earthquake, most of
the damage was recorded near the alluvial plains of the Tiber and
its tributaries (B
oZZano
et alii, 2011). In the sector investigated
in this study, where these deposits have an average thickness of
less than 10 m, soil resonance frequencies at which the above
amplifications are possible are usually in the range of 5 to 10 Hz
or more; as result, they cannot interact with the eigenfrequencies
of buildings (generally of 3-6 floors) that are on average equal
to 2-4 Hz (5 Hz only in the rare case of 2-floor buildings). Soil
amplification frequencies of below 5 Hz are possible in limited
sectors of the area under review, where alluvia and backfills may
be more than 10 m-thick, e.g. in correspondence of stream val-
leys or in case of particularly low Vs values. These frequencies
may have “double resonance” effects, amplifying ground motion
and applying more stresses to the structures of buildings, many of
which are in non-reinforced masonry.
Alluvial and backfill soils may be subject to differential set-
had been lost and they are not represented at all or are not ad-
equately represented in the geological maps of previous authors
(v
EnTriGLia
, 1971; M
arra
& r
oSa
, 1995b; v
EnTriGLia
, 2002;
F
UniciELLo
& G
iordano
, 2008b). Each of these valleys was as-
sociated with a name starting with “Fosso” (in accordance with
the local terminology for the Campagna Romana stream valleys)
on the basis of present-day toponyms (Fig. 5), also because they
are anonymous (except for Fosso di Sant’Agnese and Fosso della
Marranella) in the above-quoted historical topographic maps.
These stream valleys are as follows: Fosso di San Lorenzo and
its downslope extension towards the Verano area (L
UBErTi
, 2014),
the former completely buried, the latter with marked morphologi-
cal evidence; Fosso della Città Universitaria, deeper than the one
mapped by F
UniciELLo
& G
iordano
(2008b) and whose head is
retreated (probably inside the Macao area) and merges with the
local depression called Fosso del Macao; Fosso del Policlinico;
Fosso di via Catania, whose head is more retreated than mapped
by F
UniciELLo
& G
iordano
(2008b), as better shown in the “Map
of the outcrop unit thickness” (v
EnTriGLia
, 1971); Fosso di via
Padova, distinguished from the latter and deeper than mapped by
F
UniciELLo
& G
iordano
(2008b); Fosso di via Salento and Fosso
di via Lanciani, in part shown in the “Map of the outcrop unit
thickness” of v
EnTriGLia
(1971); and Fosso di via Ungarelli. All
of the above-mentioned streams are tributaries of Fosso della
Marranella. Among the tributaries of the right bank of Fosso di
Sant’Agnese - deeper but less wide in its initial section and whose
head is more retreated towards the Aurelian Walls than mapped
by F
UniciELLo
& G
iordano
(2008b) - it is worth quoting: Fosso
di via Tolmino, just hinted at in the maps of v
EnTriGLia
(1971,
2002); and Fosso della Sedia del Diavolo, mapped by F
UniciELLo
& G
iordano
(2008b) but more faithfully described in the “Map of
the outcrop unit thickness” (v
EnTriGLia
, 1971).
The geological map in Plate I adequately depicts another
unique feature of the geological model that was built as part
of this study: the NNW-SSE-trending lineament that is visible
in the Termini and Macao areas (Fig. 1). This lineament cor-
responds to the military moat located externally to the agger
of the Servian Walls and to the effect of the excavation of the
trench during the Roman Republic on the more shallow pyro-
clastic deposits. This trench, then filled with backfill materials,
carves the volcanic succession almost entirely, as far as Tufo del
Palatino
, based on the interpretation of the section provided by
d
E
a
nGELiS
d’o
SSaT
(1948).
ENGINEERING-GEOLOGICAL IMPLICATIONS
The detailed geological model highlighted numerous valleys,
whose morphological evidence was totally or partially concealed
by urbanisation processes, in particular by their total or partial
filling with backfill materials having a thickness of up to 20 m.
Based on the descriptions of borehole logs (where present
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DEVELOPMENT OF A GEOLOGICAL MODEL USEFUL FOR THE STUDY OF THE NATURAL HAZARDS IN URBAN ENVIRONMENTS: AN EXAMPLE
FROM THE EASTERN SECTOR OF ROME (ITALY)
57
Italian Journal of Engineering Geology and Environment, 2 (2015)
© Sapienza Università Editrice
www.ijege.uniroma1.it
the seismic bedrock. It should be stressed out that the geological
model developed as part of this study with the above-discussed
methodologies may certainly be used at the local urban-planning
scale. However, for the design of structures or buildings, this
model is to be regarded as indicative, since ad-hoc, direct and
indirect subsoil investigations are imperative.
CONCLUSIONS
In urban environments, collecting geological data with con-
ventional techniques, usually based on surveys and, where neces-
sary, investigations, is challenging. The study discussed in this
paper was expected to determine whether a critical review of
available data and an integrated analysis of geological, archeo-
logical and historical data - supported by suitable data manage-
ment methodologies - could improve the geological understand-
ing sensu lato of urban areas. The end goal of the study was to
gather sufficient data to adequately implement a geological model
useful to correctly assess geo-hazards, whose estimation is par-
ticularly important in urban areas with high population density
and precious historical-archeological heritage.
The examination and, where necessary, re-examination of
existing (published and unpublished) geological data may give a
valuable contribution to improving the basic geological knowledge
needed to develop an engineering-geological model suitable for the
urban-planning scale. In urban areas, data from prior investigations
and, in particular, from borehole logs can provide a fundamental
contribution. Their acquisition requires a process of interpretation
based on the comparison with current and historical topographic
data and, considering anthropogenic changes of the urban context,
with other geological and especially stratigraphic data. With regard
to the latter aspect, a review of the historical literature (contribu-
tions by authors who described the investigated areas when they
were not yet urbanised) may yield important elements of informa-
tion. Non-geological data may usually give a further contribution
to interpreting borehole data in an appropriate way and implement-
ing the geological model. In historical urban settings, the analysis
and comparison of archeological data and historical archive files
may provide useful insights for geological studies.
In the study area, a more detailed geological model, suitable
for urban-planning studies, was implemented. Apart from dis-
crepancies in terms of stratigraphic relationships and nomencla-
ture, the model showed that the succession defined for drawing
Sheet 374 “Roma” (F
UniciELLo
& G
iordano
, 2008c) of the of-
ficial geological map of Italy and the municipal geological map
(F
UniciELLo
et alii, 2008), both to a scale of 1:50,000, was mostly
suitable for that scale. However, based on the findings from this
study, the succession proved to be unsuitable for more detailed
maps (at least in the investigated sector), e.g. the geological map
of Rome’s urban area (scale 1:10,000) of F
UniciELLo
& G
iordano
(2008b).
tlements, which may originate from different responses in differ-
ent sectors of the foundation area to the static load of a building or
of nearby buildings (a
nTonUcci
, 2012), from the lowering of the
water table (T
ErZaGhi
& P
EcK
, 1974; F
ErrETTi
et alii, 2003), and
from dynamic stresses (e.g. earthquakes) that may densify loose
soils (M
arTELLi
, 2009). Differential settlements may also result
from the progressive sinking of covers due to the gradual upward
migration of underground cavities (B
ianchi
F
aSani
et alii, 2011).
About 50% of the underground cavities (roughly 100) identified
in the study area certainly belong (in the case of those recognised
through boreholes) or are likely to belong (in the case of other
sources and consequent assumptions based on the reconstructed
geological model) to the Pozzolane inferiori complex and are al-
ways (in the case of cavities identified through boreholes) refer-
rable to the Pozzolane Rosse or to the Pozzolane Nere.
Masonry buildings, which generally have shallow founda-
tions and are common in historical urban centres, are those that
mostly reflect the effects of their interaction with the founda-
tion soil. Indeed, these buildings may experience stress-induced
damage, when their constituent materials exceed their limit of
strength. Although these effects may be due to unstable founda-
tions (designed or built in an inadequate manner, old or subject to
overloads due to the addition of floors), differential settlements in
foundation soil may cause tensile damage (M
aSTrodicaSa
, 1993).
Ground motion due to seismic action may densify loose soil as an
indirect consequence (vibration induced by seismic waves), and
differential settlements may occur due to lateral thickness varia-
tions and variable mechanical properties of the foundation soil
strata (M
arTELLi
, 2009).
In the case of the urban portion investigated in this study, re-
cent alluvial deposits and backfills represent a particularly critical
issue. Indeed, depending on their thickness, they have a strong
influence on the behaviour of the soil within the “significant vol-
ume” (A.G.I., 1977), under both static and dynamic conditions.
In the study area, surveys conducted by L
UBErTi
(2015) to deter-
mine the damage of buildings evidenced a particular concentra-
tion of masonry buildings (without added floors), in the Macao
and San Lorenzo areas (Fig. 1), with tensile damage reasonably
attributable to differential settlements. Therefore, these areas de-
serve “careful attention” in terms of vulnerability and protection
of their built heritage. In an indirect way, the findings from these
surveys also seem to infer that these areas may be more geologi-
cally complex.
In view of the above, the development of a particularly accu-
rate engineering-geological model is of crucial importance in ur-
ban areas, especially in historical centres with plenty of masonry
buildings, which are more vulnerable. The accuracy of this model
should be particularly enhanced on its shallower portion that cer-
tainly includes the “significant volume” and, considering possible
effects under dynamic conditions, on the soil volume overlying
background image
G.M. LUBERTI, A. PRESTININZI & C. ESPOSITO
58
Italian Journal of Engineering Geology and Environment, 2 (2015)
© Sapienza Università Editrice
www.ijege.uniroma1.it
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
We thank: Arch. Di Bisceglie, in charge of “Ripartizione
delle Attività Edilizie” (office of construction activities), Sa-
pienza Università di Roma, and some officers reporting to the
same office, including Arch. Carla Onesti, in charge of “Archivio
Storico” (historical archive), for providing data; Dr. Cancellieri,
from “Sovrintendenza Capitolina, Centro documentazione dei
Cimiteri Storici del Comune di Roma” (cultural heritage office,
centre of documentation on historical cemeteries, municipality
of Rome) for unpublished material on the Verano area; the Mu-
nicipality of Rome; Dr. Briganti from Italferr, Ing. Sciotti and Dr.
Fiore from Roma Metropolitane for borehole logs; Dr. Lanzini,
Dr. Manni and Dr. Villa, geologists, for unpublished geognostic
data and useful exchanges of views; Dr. Shepherd from Aerofo-
toteca Nazionale (aerial photo library), ICCD, MiBACT, for his-
torical aerial photos. We are particularly indebted to Dr. Marra
from INGV for providing insights and (in part unpublished) data.
We also thankful to Università LUISS - Guido Carli for enabling
us to examine the stratigraphic data making part of the project of
revamping of Villa Blanc.
As regards geo-hazards and their implications in the study
area, it is worth mentioning the occurrence of buried stream val-
leys, known only in part in the literature. These valleys sug-
gest the presence of recent alluvial deposits, as demonstrated in
many cases by boreholes, which also showed very thick levels
of backfills, often masking them, put in place from the times of
the Roman Empire to the recent urbanisation. Areas deserving
“careful attention” were thus demarcated. They correspond to
the heads of paleostreams, as well as to sectors with dense net-
works of underground cavities and delimited buried quarries,
and alluvial plains with huge thickness of recent deposits. The
presence in the “significant volume” of generally highly com-
pressible materials, extremely heterogeneous and with often
poor geomechanical properties whose thickness is averagely
high but with sizeable lateral variations, such as alluvial depos-
its and backfills, suggests that, unquestionably, both deposits
represent a critical issue to be carefully taken into account in
view of the possible effects (load bearing capacity and local
seismic response) on the exposed elements, including residen-
tial, strategic and monumental buildings.
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a
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normal fault, inferred, buried
LEGEND:
GEOLOGIC MAP OF THE EASTERN
URBAN SECTOR OF ROME (ITALY)
Scale 1:10
000
Gian Marco LUBERTI
(*),
Alberto PRESTININZI
(**),
Carlo ESPOSITO
(**)
(*)
I.S.P.R.A. - Istituto Superiore per la Protezione e la Ricerca Ambientale - Via V. Brancati, 48 - 00144 Roma, Italy
(**)
Sapienza Università di Roma - Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra e Centro di Ricerca CERI - Piazzale Aldo Moro, 5 - 00185 Roma, Italy
Publication produced with the financial support of the Ministry of Education (MIUR). PRIN Project N° B81J12002830001. National scientific coordinator: prof. A. Prestininzi



"Post - Wurmian" alluvial deposits:
Mainly gray and brown sandy and silty-clay deposits with
organic horizons. High presence of volcanic elements. In the upper portion, heteropic contacts with ancient
anthropogenic materials or alluvial levels with reworked ceramics may occur. Maximum local thickness:
30 m. Upper Pleistocene - Holocene.
Fluvial deposits, mainly sandy and clayey-silt sediments on the left flank of the
Aniene valley. High volcanic component. In the area, they are located below 25 m a.s.l. Maximum
Vitinia Formation:
Fluvio-lacustrine gray and brown silt deposits, with reworked
volcanic materials. In the area, they are located between 36 and 45 m a.s.l., with a supposed maximum local
thickness locally surveyed: 8 m. M.I.S. 8 - 7. Middle Pleistocene.
thickness of 5 m. M.I.S. 8. Middle Pleistocene.
Tufo Giallo di Sacrofano:
Pyroclastic flow deposits from the Sabatini Mountains volcanic District.
Light brown cineritic matrix. Maximum thickness locally surveyed: 2 m. Middle Pleistocene.
Aurelia Formation:
Fluvio-lacustrine gravel, sand and clay deposits, with reworked volcanic materials.
In the area, they are located below 40 m a.s.l., with a maximum local thickness of 5 m. M.I.S. 9. Middle
Pleistocene.
Pozzolanelle:
Pyroclastic flow deposits from the Alban Hills volcanic District. Massive, scoriaceous ash
deposits. Maximum certain local thickness: 4 m (it might be more). Middle Pleistocene.
Tufo Lionato:
Pyroclastic flow deposits from the Alban Hills volcanic District. Lithified massive,
scoriaceous zeolitized ash orange deposits, with gray and red scoria. Maximum thickness locally surveyed:
25 m. Middle Pleistocene.
Upper Tufi Stratificati Varicolori di La Storta:
Pyroclastic fall deposits from the Sabatini
Mountains volcanic District. Multi-colored ash and lapilli sized fallout stratified beds, with pumice and
pedogenic horizons. This informal unit comprises the deposits that lie over the Pozzolane Nere.
Maximum
certain local thickness: 5 m. Middle Pleistocene.
Pozzolane inferiori complex:
Pyroclastic deposits from the Alban Hills and the Sabatini Mountains
volcanic districts. This informal unit comprises, from the top: the Pozzolane Nere PNR, massive
scoriaceous ash flow deposits from the Alban Hills; the underlying lower part of the Tufi Stratificati
Varicolori di La Storta LTTi fall deposits from the Sabatini Mountains; the Pozzolane Rosse RED, massive,
scoriaceous ash flow deposits from the Alban Hills. Maximum certain local thickness of the Complex: 6 m
Tufi Stratificati Varicolori di Sacrofano complex:
Pyroclastic deposits from the Sabatini
Mountains volcanic District. This informal unit comprises, from the top: the Tufo Terroso con Pomici
Bianche TTPB, brown ash sized fallout stratified beds, with white pumice and pedogenic horizons; the
Grottarossa Pyroclastic Sequence GRPS, fall, surge and flow deposits; the Tufo Giallo di Prima Porta
TGPP, yellow flow deposits. Maximum certain
local thickness of the complex: 12 m. Middle Pleistocene.
Upper Valle Giulia Formation:
In this area, mainly sandy and clayey-silt fluvial sediments with
volcanic component. This informal unit comprises the deposits that overlie the Tufo del Palatino. Maximum
certain thickness: 3 m (it might be more). M.I.S. 13. Middle Pleistocene.
Tufo del Palatino:
Tufo Pisolitico di Trigoria:
Pyroclastic flow deposits from the Alban Hills volcanic District. Lithified, massive
dark gray flow deposits. Maximum certain local thickness: 5 m. Middle Pleistocene.
Lower Valle Giulia Formation:
In this area, mainly sandy-gravel, clayey-silt and clay colluvial
and fluvial deposits, with reworked volcanic levels. Maximum certain local thickness: 20 m (generally less).
M.I.S. 14 - 13. Middle Pleistocene.
Pyroclastic flow deposits from the Alban Hills volcanic District. Often
lithified, massive generally brown deposits. Maximum certain local thickness: 5 m. Middle Pleistocene.
Paleotiber 4:
In this area, fine gravel, sand and clayey-silt fluvial deposits, with reworked volcanic
materials. Maximum certain local thickness: 5 m (it might be more). M.I.S. 15. Middle Pleistocene.
Paleotiber 3:
Paleotiber 2:
Fluvio-palustrine mainly yellow clayey-sand and silt, and calcareous sand, deposits, with
interbedded travertine levels. Maximum local thickness: 30 m. M.I.S. 17. Middle Pleistocene.
Fluvial gravel deposits, with calcareous clasts in poor silty-clay matrix. In the upper
portion, palustrine gray-blue silty-clay with dark organic levels.
Maximum locally surveyed thickness:
100 m (in the Paleotiber graben). M.I.S. 19. Calabrian - Middle Pleistocene.
Marne Vaticane Formation:
Marine mainly gray clay deposits, sometimes with interbedded fine
at - 90 m a.s.l. in the Paleotiber graben. In the study area, the local maximum thickness is unknown.
cross section
Backfill materials:
Anthropogenic heterogeneous modern (
h
m) and ancient (
h
a) deposits and buried
archaeological remains. The ancient deposits might be in heteropic contact with the alluvial deposits.
Maximum local thickness: 22 m. In the sections only, due to their wide distribution.
N
Via Mascagni Succession:
TGS
a
SVM
AEL
VSN2
VSN1
LTTs
pzi
(it might be more). Middle Pleistocene.
cSKF
VGUs
PTI
VGUi
TPT
PT4
PT3
PT2
MVA
clayey-sand levels. The top of the unit is about at 0 m a.s.l. in the southern sector, whereas it was surveyed
Zanclean.
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Italian Journal of Engineering Geology and Environment, 2015, 15-2
Italian Journal of Engineering Geology and Environment, 2 (2015)
L
UBERTI
G.M., P
RESTININZI
A.,
E
SPOSITO
C. - Development of a geological model useful for the study of the
geological hazards in urban environments: an example from the eastern sector of Rome (Italy)
h
m
h
a
VTN
Termini
Aniene
Stratigraphic relationships
0 0.25 0.5 0.75 1
km
Fosso di
Sant’Agnese
Fosso di
via Lanciani
Fosso di
via Salento
Fosso della Marranella
Fosso della Città Universitaria
Fosso del Policlinico
Fosso di
via Padova
Fosso di San Lorenzo
1873 g.l.
2005 g.l.
1873 g.l.
2005 g.l.
DOI: 10.4408/IJEGE.2015-02.O-04
PLATE I
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