FORMATION CONDITIONS AND RISK EVALUATION OF GLACIAL DEBRIS FLOW DISASTERS ALONG INTERNATIONAL KARAKORUM HIGHWAY (KKH) — IJEGE
 
 
You are here: Focus and scope Issues from 2005 to 2017 5th International Conference on Debris-Flow Hazards "Mitigation, Mechanics, Prediction and Assessment" Topic 8 - Prediction and Assessment of Debris Flow Hazards FORMATION CONDITIONS AND RISK EVALUATION OF GLACIAL DEBRIS FLOW DISASTERS ALONG INTERNATIONAL KARAKORUM HIGHWAY (KKH)
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FORMATION CONDITIONS AND RISK EVALUATION OF GLACIAL DEBRIS FLOW DISASTERS ALONG INTERNATIONAL KARAKORUM HIGHWAY (KKH)



Abstract:
The area of International Karakorum Highway (KKH), a mountain highway connecting northern Pakistan with northwestward China, is an area with dense and frequent glacial debris flow disasters due to the special glacial geology and landform. In this area the three basic conditions inducing glacial debris flow have developed,namely the widely distributed glacial till and ice-snow colluvium, which arise from collapse and landslide, provide the main solid sources of glacial debris flow; the very high and steep slopes, take the landform of steps with a very big gradient, to provide the moving way for glacial debris flow; and the ice-snow melt water from high-mountain, the melt water of glacier avalanche and glacial lake outburst flood provide glacial debris flow for the force to move. The valley-type debris flow is the main type of glacial debris flow occurred in the area, and it can be classified into further three sub-types according to the water source, namely glacierablation type debris flow, glacier-avalanche type debris flow and glacial-lakeoutburst- flood type debris flow. Based on in situ investigation and analysis of seven controlling variables of glacial debris flow, such as occurrence frequency, catchment areas, volumes of alluvial fan, estimated outflow of every time,vegetation coverage, slope and altitude,to evaluate the risk degree of 8 chosen representative glacier debris flows along KKH. The comprehensive fuzzy evaluation method is applied to evaluate the risk degree of glacier debris flow and then the evaluation result shows a good correspond with the practical situation, i.e. this method has a valuable application foreground.

Authors:
Zhi Quan Yang - Institute of Mountain Hazards & Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences & Ministry of Water Conservancy, Chengdu, China
Ying Yan Zhu - Institute of Mountain Hazards & Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences & Ministry of Water Conservancy, Chengdu, China
D.H. Steve Zou - Institute of Mountain Hazards & Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences & Ministry of Water Conservancy, Chengdu, China
Keywords
Glacial debris flow, International Karakorum Highway (KK H), risk evaluation, the comprehensive fuzzy evaluation method.
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